Thursday, July 19, 2018

NMSU College of ACES names new Extension Family Life and Child Development specialist


NMSU College of ACES names new Extension Family Life and Child Development specialist
DATE: 07/19/2018
WRITER: Adriana M. Chavez, 575-646-1957, adchavez@nmsu.edu
CONTACT: Karim Martinez, 575-525-6649, karmarti@nmsu.edu

Karim Martinez, formerly the county program director and Family and Consumer Sciences agent for the Doña Ana County Cooperative Extension Service, has assumed a new role at New Mexico State University, but she is certainly no stranger to the university.

Effective July 16, Martinez is the new Extension Family Life and Child Development specialist in the College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences’ Extension Family and Consumer Sciences department. Martinez has been with NMSU since 2002, except for a year spent working with Families and Youth, Inc. She earned two bachelor’s degrees and a master’s degree from the university, and earned a doctoral degree in Educational Leadership and Administration in May. While working toward her doctorate, Martinez took courses that emphasized issues of diversity, equity and social justice, which Martinez said she will be able to apply to her work as a specialist.

“Being born and raised in Las Cruces, I’ve always felt that New Mexico is where I need to be, and I love living in such a diverse state,” Martinez said. “I have a passion for serving communities and Extension provides me that opportunity.”

As an Extension Family Life and Child Development specialist, Martinez joins a team of Extension specialists who provide support to county Extension agents throughout the state. Extension specialists also provide community education as well as professional development to county Extension agents.

Martinez’s new role is to develop and select programs catered to people across the life span, which may include child development, strengthening couple relationships and topics related to aging such as coping with loss and grief.

“As specialists, we focus on one area, and I’m looking forward to developing programs in this area,” said Martinez, who holds a master’s degree in Family and Consumer Sciences and completed coursework focusing on human development and marriage and family therapy.

“With 14 years of experience in the Cooperative Extension Service, Dr. Martinez has a wide breadth of knowledge and experience, and has served in a variety of leadership roles and statewide initiatives,” said Priscilla Bloomquist, interim head of the Family and Consumer Sciences department and Extension Family and Consumer Sciences in the College of ACES. “She is an excellent addition to the team.
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Tuesday, July 10, 2018

If shell eggs freeze accidentally, are they safe?

Shell eggs should not be frozen. If an egg accidentally freezes and the shell cracked during freezing, discard the egg. However, if the egg did not crack, keep it frozen until needed; then thaw it in the refrigerator. It can be hard cooked successfully but other uses may be limited because freezing causes the yolk to become thick and syrupy so it will not flow like an unfrozen yolk or blend very well with the egg white or other ingredients.

Where can consumers find information on recalls of food products?

For information on recalls of meat, poultry and egg products, go to FSIS Recall Information or call the USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline 1-888-MPHOTLINE (1-888-674-6854). For information on recalls of foods other than meat, poultry and egg products, contact the FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Outreach and Information Center at 1-888-SAFE FOOD (1-888-723-3366).

Tuesday, April 3, 2018

Food Safety: Removing Odors from Refrigerators and Freezers

Food Safety: Removing Odors from Refrigerators and Freezers

Refrigerators and freezers are two of the most important pieces of equipment in the kitchen for keeping food safe. We are instantly reminded of their importance when the power goes off, flooding occurs, or the unit fails, causing food to become unsafe and spoil. The odors that develop when food spoils can be difficult to remove. Use this information to learn how to remove odors from units or how to safely discard an affected unit.
To Remove Odors from Refrigerators and Freezers
If food has spoiled in a refrigerator or freezer and odors from the food remain, they may be difficult to remove. The following procedures may help but may have to be repeated several times.
  • Dispose of any spoiled or questionable food.
  • Remove shelves, crispers, and ice trays. Wash them thoroughly with hot water and detergent. Then rinse with a sanitizing solution (1 tablespoon unscented, liquid chlorine bleach per gallon of water).
  • Wash the interior of the refrigerator and freezer, including the door and gasket, with hot water and baking soda. Rinse with sanitizing solution as above.
  • Leave the door open for about 15 minutes to allow free air circulation.
If odors remain, try any or all of the following:
  • Wipe inside of unit with equal parts vinegar and water. Vinegar provides acid which destroys mildew.
  • Leave the door open and allow to air out for several days.
  • Stuff both the refrigerator and freezer with rolled newspapers. Close the door and leave for several days. Remove paper and clean with vinegar and water.
  • Sprinkle fresh coffee grounds or baking soda loosely in a large, shallow container in the bottom of the refrigerator and freezer.
  • Place a cotton swab soaked with vanilla inside the refrigerator and freezer. Close door for 24 hours. Check for odors.
  • Use a commercial product available at hardware and housewares stores. Follow the manufacturer's instructions.
If Odors Cannot Be Removed
If odors cannot be removed, then the refrigerator or freezer may need to be discarded. If you need to discard the refrigerator or freezer, discard it in a safe manner:
  • "Childproof" old refrigerators or freezers so children do not get trapped inside. The surest way is to take the door off.
  • If the door will not come off, chain and padlock the door permanently and close tightly, or remove or disable the latch completely so the door will no longer lock when closed.
It is unlawful in many jurisdictions to discard old refrigerators or freezers without first removing the door.
Depending on where you live, your appliance will be picked up by your solid waste provider, a recycler, a retailer (if you buy a new unit), or program sponsored by local or regional utilities.

Friday, February 2, 2018

FREE Diabetes Self-Management Program workshops

Eddy County Cooperative Extension Services announces a series of free Diabetes Self-Management Program workshops. DSMP is a workshop for people with or at risk for diabetes. It teaches the skills needed in the day-to-day management of Diabetes and to maintain and/or increase life’s activities. The program is designed to help people gain self-confidence with their ability to control their symptoms and learn how their health problems affect their lives. The Diabetes Self-Management Program (DSMP) is an evidence-based self-management workshop originally developed at Stanford University. The small group workshops are six weeks long, meeting once a week for two-and-a-half hours and are led by a pair of Trained Leaders. The meetings are highly interactive, focusing on building skills, sharing experiences and support. Participants learn how to make weekly action plans and help each other solve problems they encounter in creating and carrying out the self-management program. Diabetes Self-Management Classes will be held each Tuesday beginning February 6 through March 13, 2018 from 2:00-4:30 p.m at the Eddy County Extension Office, 1304 W. Stevens St. For additional information and registration, call Jennah McKinley at 575-887-6595. 

Wednesday, January 31, 2018

This Super Bowl the USDA Recommends a Winning Play Against BAC!

Clean Play

Wash your hands, but not those wings. According to the National Chicken Council, more than 1.3 billion chicken wings will be consumed this Super Bowl, but washing those wings is not recommended because bacteria in raw meat and poultry juices can splash and spread to other foods, utensils and surfaces, contaminating them. Be sure to wash your hands with warm water and soap before cooking, but keep the wings dry.

Play Defense

Don’t cross contaminate. When you are shopping at the grocery store keep raw meat, poultry, eggs and seafood in separate plastic bags to prevent their juices from dripping onto other foods. Always remember to use a separate cutting board for fresh fruits and vegetables and for raw meats.

Intercept Bacteria

Raw meat, poultry, seafood and egg products need to be cooked to the right internal temperature. Use a food thermometer to ensure foods have reached the correct temperature to kill any harmful bacteria that may be present. Chicken wings are safe to eat when they have reached an internal temperature of 165°F. Before indulging, take the temperature of multiple wings in the thickest part of the wing being careful to avoid the bone.

Cool Play

Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold. Keep food hot (at 140°F or above) in a slow cooker or chafing dish, or keep half of the food on the table and the other in the oven and swap it out every hour. Keep cold foods cold (at 40°F or below) by placing salads, dips and salsa in a tray of ice. When setting food out, be sure to serve cold foods in small portions.

Avoid the Danger Zone

Don’t leave food sitting out. Most bacteria grow rapidly at temperature between 40°F and 140°F. That temperature range is known as the “Danger Zone”. Refrigerate food promptly. Do not leave food at room temperature for more than 2 hours.

Need more food safety information? Call the USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline at (1-888-674-6854) Monday through Friday, from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. ET, or email or chat at AskKaren.gov.

Tuesday, November 21, 2017

Fats role in Type 2 diabetes

It is known that people develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) due to increased insulin
resistance and diminished pancreatic beta cells (b-cells) which produce insulin. When the
human body is unable to produce insulin to regulate blood glucose levels a person will
develop T2DM. Many factors play a role in developing T2DM; genetics, sugar consumption,
fat consumption, lack of exercise, weight status (BMI), and others. This paper looks at how
ingesting high fat diets, particularly diets high in saturated fat, can cause diabetes.
Insulin works by locking onto a cell wall which activates the inside of the cell to allow blood glucose to come in the cell and out of the blood stream. Increased insulin resistance occurs when insulin latches onto the cell and the mechanism inside the cell
fails to allow glucose into the cell. According to Bosma, M., Kersten, S., Hesselink, M.K.C., & Schrauwen, P., (2011) increased intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) levels, which are associated with obesity, negatively correlate with insulin sensitivity. This means
an accumulation of fat in the muscle is associated with a reduction in insulin mediated glucose uptake.
They go on to indicate that the mechanism for cell inhibition of uptake of blood glucose is still under investigation. There are possible connections to lipid intermediates. These intermediates somehow stop the signaling process once insulin attaches to
the cell. The enzymes which should activate to signal the glucose transporter never start their process. This leads to blood glucose being left outside the cell which elevates blood glucose levels.
Insulin resistance is half the problem when developing T2DM. Decline of b-cell function also contributes to the disease. It can start by a person consuming excess fat/calories, causing excess muscle fat buildup, which can lead to a decrease in pancreatic
function to release insulin. According to Taylor, R., (2013) fatty muscles happen when caloric intake is greater than expenditure. This results in a buildup of fat in the liver. As the amount of fat in the liver increases, insulin sensitivity in the liver decreases. Since a fatty liver can become deadly, the liver will try to release fat in the form of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). The pancreatic islets are therefore exposed to increased levels of VLDL. People respond individually to different levels
of this fat exposure, but at a point the b-cells will fail to adequately respond, resulting in cell death and elevated blood glucose levels.
This pancreatic b-cells apoptosis is what can lead to T2DM becoming a lifelong disease. A study by Cnop, M., et al. (2010) concluded that people’s b-cells formation is largely established by age 20. This would imply that when the b-cells are destroyed by VLDL exposure, they are gone for the remaining lifespan of the person, decreasing the person’s ability to produce insulin to
decrease blood glucose levels. When discussing fat consumption, it is also important to determine whether it is all fat or certain fats that can lead to IMCL, insulin resistance, and b-cell loss. From in vitro studies described by Nolan, C.J., & Larter, C. Z., (2009) it is known that saturated
fatty acids (SFA) are toxic to cells while monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are cytoprotective. Martins, A.R., et al., corroborates the connection that SFAs and trans fats are linked to increased insulin resistance. There are multiple theories about how SFAs effect insulin sensitivity. Some of these are SFAs alter gene expression, activation of inflammatory pathways, Rande cycle (competition between SFAs and glucose), SFAs inhibition of cell signaling, and impairment of the mitochondria.
Studies and discussions of these theories indicate that multiple processes contribute rather than a single mechanism.
SFAs and trans fat are most commonly found in animal products. When looking at the correlation between meat and T2DM The InterAct Consortium, (2012) found a positive association between high consumption of total and red meat and T2DM in a large cohort of European adults. Studies by Gojda, J., et al., (2013) and Goff, L.M., Bell, J.D., So, P-W., Dornhorst, A., & Frost, G.S.,
(2005) compared vegans to omnivores with the same BMI and activity level. They concluded that vegans had better insulin sensitivity, lower IMCL, better glucose hemeostasis, plasma lipid profile, less muscle lipids, and improved b-cell function. They conclude that eating less to no meat may help protect people from developing T2DM. Studies of chronic disease support that everyone, not only patients with T2DM, may benefit by reducing their fat intake, particularly saturated fat and trans fat, to ensure proper function of cells and vital organs to prevent chronic diseases from
progressing. Diet plays an important role in disease prevention and treatment. Boucher, Evert, Daly, Kulkarni, Rizzotto, Burton and Bradshaw (2011) state that the three pillars of diabetic treatment are nutrition, physical activity, and medication therapy and that the most important of these is a healthy diet.
Sources:
Boucher, J. L., Evert, A., Daly, A., Kulkarni, K., Rizzotto, J., Burton, K., & Bradshaw, B. G. (2011). American Dietetic Association
revised Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for registered dietitians (generalist, specialty,
and advanced) in diabetes care. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 111, 156-166. doi: 10.1016/
j.jada.2010.10.053
Bosma, M., Kersten, S., Hesselink, M.K.C., & Schrauwen, P., (2011). Re-evaluating lipotoxic triggers in skeletal muscle: Relating
intramyocellular lipid metabolism to insulin sensitivity. Progress in Lipid Research, 51, 36-49. Doi: 10.1016/
j.plipres.2011.11.003
Cnop, M., Hughes. S.J., Igoillo-Esteve, M., Hoppa, M.B., Sayyed, F., Laar, L., … & Clark, A., (2010). The long lifespan and low
turnover of human islet beta cells estimated by mathematical modeling of lipofuscin accumulation. Diabetologia, 53,
321-330. Doi: 10.1007/s00125-009-1562-x
Goff, L.M., Bell, J.D., So, P-W., Dornhorst, A., & Frost, G.S., (2005). Veganism and its relationship with insulin resistance and
intramyocellular lipid. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59, 291-298. Doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602076
Gojda, J., Patkova, J., Jacek, M., Potockova, J., Trnka, J., Krami, P., & Andel, M., (2013). Higher insulin sensitivity in vegans is not
associated with higher mitochondrial density. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67, 1310-1315. Doi: 10.1038/
ejcn.2013.202
Martins, A.R., Nachbar, R.T., Gorjao, R., Vinolo, M.A., Festuccia, W.T., Lambertucci, F.H., … & Hirabara, S.M., (2012).
Mechanisms underlying skeletal muscl insulin resistance induced by fatty acids: importance of the mitochondrial
function. Lipids in Healht and Disease, 11, 30. Doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-11-30
Nolan, C.J., & Larter, C.Z., (2009). Lipotoxicity: Why do saturated fatty acids cause and monounsaturates protect against it?.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 24, 203-711. Doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.05823.x
Taylor, R., (2013). Banting memorial lecture 2012 reversing the twin cycles of type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 30, 267-275.
Doi: 10.1111/dme.12039
The InterAct Consortium, (2012). Association between dietary meat consumption and incident type 2 diabetes: The EPICInteraAct
study. Diabetologia, 56, 47-59. Doi: 10.1007/s00125-012-2718-7